Why targeted drug doesn’t benefit patients with early-stage lung cancer

Why targeted drug doesn't benefit patients with early-stage lung cancer
The study’s key technical findings include: “We found that the activated, mutated EGFR directly inhibits Notch signaling, and that inhibiting EGFR with erlotinib removes this restraint and activates Notch signaling,” says Carbone, who is the Barbara J. Bonner Chair in Lung Cancer Research. “It suggests that specific dual targeting might overcome this adverse effect.” Carbone,...

Silencing the speech gene FOXP2 causes breast cancer cells to metastasize

Silencing the speech gene FOXP2 causes breast cancer cells to metastasize
Currently described online in Cell Stem Cell, the new findings demonstrate that, when silenced, the FOXP2 transcription factor, otherwise known as the speech gene, endows breast cancer cells with a number of malignant traits and properties that enable them to survive — and thrive. FOXP2 has primarily been implicated in regulating speech and language development and several reports have described...

With three first-in-human trials, therapeutic stem cell science takes a bold step

With three first-in-human trials, therapeutic stem cell science takes a bold step
Researchers at UC San Diego Moores Cancer Center and the Sanford Stem Cell Clinical Center have launched a Phase I human clinical trial to assess the safety and efficacy of a new monoclonal antibody for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), the most common form of blood cancer in adults. The spinal cord injury trial is one of three recent ground-breaking stem cell efforts at UC San Diego,...

Lab-developed intestinal organoids form mature human tissue in mice

Lab-developed intestinal organoids form mature human tissue in mice
However, the researchers cautioned that it will take years of further research to translate lab-grown tissue replacement into medical practice. In the meantime, the discovery could have other, more immediate benefits by accelerating drug development and the concept of personalized medicine. Researchers have successfully transplanted “organoids” of functioning human intestinal tissue grown...

‘Mega’ cells control growth of blood-producing cells

'Mega' cells control growth of blood-producing cells
“Megakaryocytes can directly regulate the amount of hematopoietic stem cells by telling the cells when they need to keep in the quiescent stage, and when they need to start proliferating to meet increased demand.” Maintaining that delicate balance is important, he adds. “You don’t want to have too many or too few hematopoietic stem cells.” “Our results suggest that...

Stem cells discovered in the esophagus

Stem cells discovered in the esophagus
In future work, the researchers will examine human esophageal tissues for evidence of stem cell dysfunction in Barrett’s esophagus disease. “The esophageal lining must renew regularly as cells slough off into the gastrointestinal tract,” said senior investigator Eric Lagasse, Pharm.D., Ph.D., associate professor of pathology, Pitt School of Medicine, and director of the Cancer Stem...

Cell discovery challenges dogma on how fetus develops; holds insights for liver cancer, regeneration

Cell discovery challenges dogma on how fetus develops; holds insights for liver cancer, regeneration
Beyond the womb, many human organs contain pools of partially differentiated stem cells, which are ready to differentiate into specific replacement cells as needed. Among these are stem cells that “know” they are liver cells, but have enough “stemness” to become more than one cell type. Story Source: Using standard tools of molecular biology, the team garnered evidence that...

First report of long-term safety of human embryonic stem cells to treat human disease

First report of long-term safety of human embryonic stem cells to treat human disease
“Embryonic stem cells have the potential to become any cell type in the body, but transplantation has been complicated by problems including the risk of teratoma formation and immune rejection,” explains lead author Professor Robert Lanza, Chief Scientific officer at Advanced Cell Technology in the USA. “As a result, immunoprivileged sites (that do not produce a strong immune response)...

Autophagy helps fast track stem cell activation

Autophagy helps fast track stem cell activation
Autophagy involves the engulfment of cellular organelles into specialized vacuoles surrounded by a double membrane. The contents of these vacuoles are delivered to the lysosome, another organelle within the cell, where they are degraded to useful small molecules and help to generate energy and biomass for the synthesis of macromolecules and new organelles. Researchers from Stanford University School...

New cells meant to form blood vessels developed, treat peripheral artery disease

New cells meant to form blood vessels developed, treat peripheral artery disease
Reporting their work in the journal Nature Biotechnology, the researchers said they had developed a potential therapy through the use of patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells, which are normal adult cells that have been “coaxed” via laboratory techniques into reverting into the more primitive stem cells that can produce most types of bodily tissue. So, in one of the significant...